烟悦网论坛

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

微信登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索
烟悦官方公众号“烟悦”
请勿网购卷烟与电子烟
查看: 18857|回复: 12

老外自己加工发酵烟草的文章

[复制链接]
发表于 2011-9-24 23:06:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
吸烟有害健康,请勿教唆他人学习抽烟。本网站含有烟草方面内容,18岁以下人士请勿光顾。
国家烟草专卖局提示消费者:切勿网购卷烟!
登录后不再显示

 

Tobacco leaves that are dried without curing will be undesirable. Three things are needed to cure tobacco: containment, moisture, and heat.

Curing methods employed in different parts of the world are many and varied, but all involve some sort of containment for a period of time. Freshly dried tobacco leaves are traditionally simply piled up in a heap and usually covered snugly with something like canvas or hides. Traditional methods also include leaves that are tied in bundles and hung in the rafters of a barn, twisted or pressed in a plug, wrapped in corn husks or other large leaves, stuffed tightly in a hollow log, or pressed into a gourd.

Tobacco curing is really fermentation. Containment provides an environment conducive to the natural process of leaf fermentation. Ripe tobacco leaves once contained begin an amazing alchemical process of complex biosynthesis converting residual compounds to produce a natural refinement of different qualities including exceptional flavor and aroma.

Tobacco needs some leaf moisture to cure properly. 15 to 25% leaf moisture is about right to cure tobacco naturally. As tobacco cures, it is sort of stews in its own natural juices. Water can be sprayed or misted on dry leaf to add moisture, but this adds nothing to the natural compounds in the leaf. In fact, every time tobacco leaf dries out, it loses some degree of its original chemistry. Volatile oils evaporate. Nicotine content degrades. Natural leaf sugars break down. Natural tobacco flavor and aroma are lost.  For this reason, freshly harvested tobacco leaf is shade dried slowly to closely monitor when it is dried just right – when natural leaf moisture content is just enough to cure properly.  

Probably the most important ‘juice’ is a leaf compound called ‘sucrose ester’. This is a natural part of leaf moisture content. This natural leaf sugar is necessary for fermentation. Sugar is the fuel source to cure tobacco naturally. Most heirloom tobaccos and old world classic varieties contain more than enough natural sucrose ester to cure naturally. If leaves dry too much before curing, or if there is reason to suspect the variety may contain low natural leaf sugar, it will help to add a light misting of honey water. Make honey water by mixing one teaspoon of honey in two cups of warm water.

It is preferable to cure natural tobacco in a ‘neutral’ container which will contribute little or nothing to the natural distinctive flavor and aroma.  The Jar method is simple, and well suited to small crops of home grown tobacco. Larger crops from the home garden will do better with the Bag method using large zip-lock bags.

Glass jars are ideal for curing natural tobacco from the home garden. Large wide mouth apothecary type glass jars (½ to 1 gallon) work best. The closed glass jars can be visually inspected anytime during curing without opening them. Large zipper locked plastic bags are a reasonable substitute. Jars can be washed and reused, but bags cannot be cleaned well enough for reuse.

Pack stacks of properly dried tobacco leaves into the jars snugly. The jars should not be packed so tightly that any single leaf could not be easily pulled out by its stem. The leaves need a little space to breathe and transpire inside the closed jar as fermentation perks along.  Insert leaf stacks in jars with stems pointing up, to allow condensation to form near the top/opening of the jar, and to make it easier to move and check them during curing for mold or fungus which usually develops first on the leaf stems.

Leaf fermentation begins when lids are closed on jars placed in a warm dark place. The best temperature is 75 - 85F. The jars should be easily accessible to check regularly. In warm climates a shelf in the garage or carport will do fine. Inside kitchen cabinets work well. The closed cabinets keep things in the dark, and temperature tends to stay just a little warmer than room temperature. These are ideal conditions to cure tobacco naturally.

Tobacco leaf fermentation becomes accelerated by increased heat over 85F. Various methods add heat to artificially speed up the process.  Tobacco kilns are popular for the fast cure, and are most comparable to air cured barn dried tobacco. The kiln method heats curing tobacco to just over 110F (or even higher) for rapid fermentation. Flue cured tobacco similarly vents heated air through the tobacco to accelerate curing. Stove cured tobacco actually cooks leaves in a soup of additives and bakes the leaves dry for smoking. These high heat methods are fast, but destroy volatile oils and other natural leaf compounds which produce the distinctive flavor and aroma of naturally cured tobacco. Some scientific research also suggests curing tobacco with high heat converts chemicals in the leaves into compounds with a higher degree of carcinogenic effect.  

During the first week of fermentation there will be condensation inside the jars. If there is no condensation, make sure the jars are warm enough (75 to 85F). The leaf stacks in the jars have stems holding on to some moisture. Some of this moisture is absorbed by other leaves in the jar, equalizing moisture content throughout all the leaves in the jar. When excess moisture condenses inside the jar it needs to evaporate more quickly than the leaves can absorb. Check jars every day. When condensation appears, remove the lid and allow the condensation to evaporate. Replace the lid when condensation completely evaporates. The goal is to equalize the moisture content evenly throughout all the leaves in the jar.

The jars should be condensation free within the second week. At this point, the leaves in the jars have equalized moisture throughout all the leaves. Fermentation proceeds by leaving the jars closed and undisturbed in a warm dark place for one month. During this difficult wait, the only task is to keep the temperature within ideal range and check the jars regularly for evidence of mold or fungus.

Often airborne mold spores get into curing tobacco. Mold and fungus spoil tobacco quickly. If mold or fungus appears, open the jar and remove the molded leaves, and allow it to vent for about an hour before replacing the lid. Keep a close check on that jar for reappearance of mold and remove it as soon as possible. Take preventative steps: inspect visually, keep jars closed, and wash hands well before opening the jars to vent condensation. An ounce of prevention may save a pound of tobacco!

During this time, leaf colors begin to change, and good stuff is going on inside those jars. This is a critical time in the leaf fermentation process. Opening the jars prematurely will likely interrupt the biochemical transformations going on inside – or worse yet, mold may invade. Better to just leave it alone. Curing tobacco is a natural process, and it takes some time. Resist the urge to open the jars before one month.

After one month, open the jars to check on the progress. Curing is complete when a distinctive tobacco aroma is noticeable. The odor may have a somewhat earthy scent, but there should be a distinct tobacco aroma to the leaf, not grassy or sour. Off aromas are probably just evidence of incomplete fermentation, but it may also indicate undetected mold. Check visibly by moving the leaves around a little using the stems. (Remember, wash hands before touching tobacco while it cures.) Stalled leaf fermentation is usually due to temperatures falling too low. I have found that an additional two weeks with optimal temperature will allow tobacco to finish curing.  

After the tobacco leaf is cured, it is ready to process for storage and aging. Remove the main leaf stems before storage. Removal of this main leaf vein is called ‘stripping’. Go through the stacks or bundles of cured leaves and strip out the main leaf stem from each leaf. Flatten each leaf and fold lengthwise so that the underside of the leaf is folded inside and main leaf vein forms the top ridge of the fold. Pinch the main leaf vein near the tip of the leaf, holding the leaf with fingers of the other hand, and pull the leaf vein down toward the base of the leaf. This strips the vein out of the leaf and prepares it for storage.

Add a touch of honey after tobacco is cured naturally. Honey is a natural antibacterial antimicrobial that inhibits mold and fungus development during tobacco storage. Mix one teaspoon of honey with one cup of pure water, then use a spray bottle to mist tobacco lightly. Allow the leaves to set overnight to equalize the honey water. Make sure to let the leaves dry out enough for storage (mostly dry, but not so dry as to crack or crumble).

Cured stripped tobacco should be sealed in containers for aging. Tobacco tins or glass jars work well for storing tobacco. Natural tobacco aged for a couple of months may be good, but after a year or two it will be great!

Even after tobacco is cured, it needs time to mellow. Like fine wine needs time in the bottle to age into something wonderful, natural tobacco needs time to age before it is in its prime. If you are really motivated, you can pull out a choice leaf and sample it. Be realistic, it will be somewhat harsh, but you can get a reasonable preview of what the crop has to offer. So, exercise some restraint and wait for a month or two in storage. The wait will be well rewarded.

Check back to the HT Garden Page for the next update on storage, aging and processing tobacco from the home garden.

 


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登录】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!
登录后不显示本提示,不显示站外广告

提醒:网购香烟假货泛滥,若非存心想抽假的,请勿上当(本站为纯交流社区,不出售烟草制品)
回复

使用道具 举报

 楼主| 发表于 2011-9-24 23:08:25 | 显示全部楼层
请勿在公共场所吸烟,请勿在禁止吸烟场所吸烟,周围有不吸烟人群请勿吸烟,文明吸烟从你我做起。
没有固化干燥的烟草叶将是不可取的。三件事情需要治愈:遏制烟草,水分和热。

在世界不同地区的就业的固化方法是多种多样的,但所有涉及到一些遏制了一段时间的排序。新鲜干燥的烟叶传统简单堆放在堆通常覆盖着类似帆布或皮革紧贴 。传统的方法还包括,绑成捆,挂在谷仓的椽子,扭曲或压在一个插件,在玉米壳或其他大叶包裹,塞在一个中空的日志紧紧,或压成一个葫芦的叶子。

烟叶烘烤是真的发酵。遏制提供了一个环境,有利于烟叶发酵的自然过程 。成熟的烟叶一次所载开始一个惊人的炼金过程中复杂的合成转换残留的化合物,产生不同的素质,包括特殊的味道和香气自然细化。

烟草需要一些叶片水分正常治愈。15〜25%的叶片水分自然治愈烟草有关的权利 。由于烟草的治疗方法,它是在其自身的天然果汁的炖菜。可喷洒水或干叶,补充水分misted,但是这会增加无关,在叶的天然化合物 。事实上,每次烟叶变干,失去了一些其原来的化学程度。挥发油蒸发。烟碱含量降低。天然叶糖分解。天然烟草的味道和香气都将丢失。  出于这个原因,刚收获的烟叶干,慢慢地密切注视时,干恰到好处的阴影-当自然叶片水分含量就足以治愈正确。

也许最重要的“果汁”是叶的化合物称为“蔗糖酯”。这是一个自然的一部分叶片水分含量。这自然叶糖发酵所必需的。糖是自然治愈烟草的燃料来源。大多数的传家宝烟草和旧世界的经典品种含有足够的天然蔗糖酯自然治愈。如果叶干燥固化前太多,或者,如果有理由怀疑可能含有多种天然叶糖低,这将有助于添加蜂蜜水的光喷雾。两杯温水混合一茶匙的蜂蜜蜂蜜水。

它胜于治疗在一个“中立”的容器,这将有助于很少或几乎没有自然的独特的风味和  香气天然烟草的Jar方法很简单,非常适合家庭种植烟草的小作物。从入户花园的收成会做的更好,袋大袋拉链锁的方法。

玻璃罐固化从入户花园的天然烟草的理想选择。最好的大宽口的药剂师类型玻璃瓶(1加仑半)的工作。封闭的玻璃罐可以随时随地进行目视检查,而无需打开它们时固化。大拉链锁塑料袋是合理的替代。可以洗罐和重用,但不能清洗再用袋不够好。

包堆叠适当干燥烟草叶成贴身的罐子。的罐子,不应该装得那么紧,不容易被拉任何单叶茎。叶子需要一点呼吸的空间内封闭发酵PERKS JAR沿  蒸发插入叶茎朝上罐栈,允许凝结形成的罐子顶部附近/开放,以使其更易于移动检查固化在霉菌或真菌通常首先对叶茎发展。

在温暖黑暗的地方放置罐子的盖子关闭时,叶发酵开始。最佳温度是75 - 85F 的罐子应该是方便定期检查。在温暖的气候,在车库或车棚的架子,做精。内厨柜工作。封闭的橱柜保持在黑暗中的东西,和温度往往比室温留一点点温暖 。这些理想的条件下自然固化烟草。

烟叶发酵变成增加了85F热加速。各种方法补充热量,人为地加快这一进程。  烟草窑流行的固化速度快,并且是最具可比性的空气治愈谷仓干烟草。窑方法加热固化烟草快速发酵,刚刚超过110F(甚至更高)。烤烟烟草同样喷口加热的空气通过的烟草,以加速固化。炉烤烟实际上厨师叶汤的添加剂和烘烤的叶子干的吸烟。这些高热量的方法速度快,但破坏,产生独特的风味和自然烤烟的香气的挥发油和其它叶片自然化合物。一些科学的研究还表明,高温固化烟草转换成具有致癌作用的程度较高的化合物的化学品的叶子。

在发酵的第一个星期就会有凝结的罐子内。如果有不结露,确保罐子足够温暖(75〜85F)。在罐子叶栈有一些水分的茎。一些水分被吸收其他的jar叶,均衡各地的JAR中的所有叶的水分含量。时可以吸收里面的jar它需要比叶更迅速蒸发多余的水分凝结的。每天检查罐。出现结露时,取下盖子,使冷凝液体蒸发。更换盖子完全蒸发凝结时。我们的目标是,以平衡各地的JAR中的所有叶的水分含量均匀。

的罐子应该凝结内的第二个星期免费。此时,在罐子的叶子有水分均衡整个所有的叶子。离开封闭的罐子和一个温暖的一个月黑暗的地方不受干扰发酵所得。在这个艰难的等待,唯一的任务,是保持理想的范围内的温度和定期检查霉菌或真菌的证据的罐子。

通常空气中的霉菌孢子进入固化烟草。霉菌和真菌迅速弃土烟草。如果出现霉菌或真菌,打开罐子,取出成型叶片,并允许它更换盖子前约一个小时发泄。该JAR保持密切的检查模具的再现,并尽快将其删除。采取相应的预防措施:视觉检查,保持罐封闭,以及开放前的罐子来发泄凝结洗净双手。一盎司的预防可以节省一磅烟草!

在这段时间内,叶片的颜色开始改变,好东西是那些罐子内。这是一个在烟叶发酵过程中的关键时刻。过早开放的罐子很可能会中断内的生化转换 - 或者更糟糕的是,霉菌可能侵入。最好只息事宁人。固化烟草是一个自然过程,它需要一些时间。抵制的呼吁,开放1个月前的罐子。

一个月后,打开罐子,检查的进展。固化完成的,当一个独特的烟草香气明显。气味可能有几分泥土的气味,但应该有一个独特的烟草叶的香气,而不是草地或酸味。关香味可能只是不完全发酵的证据,但也可能预示未被发现的模具。检查明显走动很少使用的茎的叶。(请记住,洗净双手,然后触摸烟草而固化。)陷入僵局的叶子发酵通常是由于温度下降过低。我发现一个额外的两个星期的最佳温度,将使烟草完成固化。

烟叶治愈后,它已准备好存储和老化过程。之前取出存储主要的叶茎。去除这个主叶脉被称为“剥离”。通过堆叠或治愈叶束和剥离出每片叶子的主要的叶茎。纵向拼合每个叶和褶皱,叶底面内折叠和主叶脉形成顶部的褶皱脊。捏的主叶脉,叶的尖端附近,拿着另一方面手指叶,拉向叶脉叶基地。这条叶静脉和准备用于存储。

添加蜂蜜的触摸后,烟草是自然治愈。蜂蜜是一种天然的抗菌抗菌,抑制霉菌和真菌的发展,在烟草存储。混合一茶匙蜂蜜与一杯纯净水,然后用喷雾瓶轻轻薄雾烟草。允许叶过夜,以平衡蜂蜜水。确保让叶干出足够的存储(大多干燥,但不这么干,以打击或崩溃)。

固化剥离烟草应密封在容器老化。烟草罐或玻璃罐储存烟草的工作做好。天然烟草几个月岁可能是好的,但一年或两年后,这将是伟大的!

即使治愈后烟草,它需要时间成熟。就像美酒需要时间为神奇,在年龄瓶,烟草自然需要时间来岁之前,它正处于最好的。如果你是真正的动机,你可以拉出一个选择叶和样品。是现实的,它会有些苛刻,但你可以得到一个合理的作物提供预览。因此,行使一定的克制,并存储在等待一两个月。等待将是很好的回报。

HT花园页检查对存储的下一个更新,从入户花园的老龄化和加工烟草。


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提醒:网购香烟假货泛滥,若非存心想抽假的,请勿上当(本站为纯交流社区,不出售烟草制品)
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

 楼主| 发表于 2011-9-24 23:11:25 | 显示全部楼层
[img][img][/img][/img]回复 2# 孟德

[img][/img] mopanjars1_jc6c.jpg ht_bag_cure2.jpg mopancure2.jpg jarcur1.jpg jarcure3.jpg


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提倡大家多回帖,但回帖请有感而发,纯灌水的回帖将被扣分。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2011-9-25 08:39:33 | 显示全部楼层
来学习知识了呵呵


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2011-9-25 10:39:20 | 显示全部楼层
真下手了,祝你成功!


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提倡大家多回帖,但回帖请有感而发,纯灌水的回帖将被扣分。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2011-9-25 14:25:58 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢,辛苦了,翻译了这么多,对我很有帮助。个别词汇的翻译值得商榷(自我感觉啊)。但我怀疑这篇文章讲的可能不全面。我现在驯服国产的V草有一定感受,纯v将从我采购外丝的清单中除去。外丝货紧价升,弟兄们,向国产靠拢,向DIY靠拢。


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提醒:网购香烟假货泛滥,若非存心想抽假的,请勿上当(本站为纯交流社区,不出售烟草制品)
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2011-9-26 01:12:40 | 显示全部楼层
新手学习中。


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提醒:网购香烟假货泛滥,若非存心想抽假的,请勿上当(本站为纯交流社区,不出售烟草制品)
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2011-9-26 23:19:48 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 风月清明 于 2011-9-26 23:22 编辑

学无止境。

我也早将纯v将从我采购外丝的清单中除去了。


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提醒:网购香烟假货泛滥,若非存心想抽假的,请勿上当(本站为纯交流社区,不出售烟草制品)
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2011-10-13 01:30:41 | 显示全部楼层
纯技术贴,有待研究!


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2012-7-30 02:03:30 | 显示全部楼层
这个故事片很好看,就是翻译的还不太美,,,


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

提倡大家多回帖,但回帖请有感而发,纯灌水的回帖将被扣分。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2012-7-30 10:15:42 | 显示全部楼层
纯V本土化很好


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2012-8-1 14:41:08 | 显示全部楼层
孟德兄 最近 怎么没动静了呀


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

发表于 2012-8-24 21:51:27 | 显示全部楼层

哈哈。向DIY靠拢。技术难啊!最好有这样的交流聚会就好了。


*** 吸烟有害健康,本站含有烟草内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览 ***
您还未【注册】或【登陆】!中国领先的烟民交流社区,期待着你的加入!

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

Archiver|手机|小黑屋|联系我们|烟悦网 ( 京ICP备07038409号 )

[email protected]

ICP证京B2-20180970号  京公网安备 11010502036239号

※吸烟酗酒有害健康,本站含有烟酒内容,不欢迎未成年人浏览

※本站为网民交流网站,不出售任何烟草制品,不承接烟企宣传

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表